Following the United States’ withdrawal from Afghanistan, the Taliban have reportedly seized biometrics devices left behind by the US military. Over the past 20 years, these devices collected information on Afghan citizens who assisted the US military, which was then sent to a Department of Defense (DOD) database. One of the devices, known as Handheld Interagency Identity Detection Equipment (HIIDE), was deployed in 2016 to collect iris scans and fingerprints to enable quick identification of Afghan citizens and expand the aforementioned database of their information. The DOD also built a highly classified Automated Biometrics Identification System (ABIS), which hosted information from HIIDE and other data-collection devices.
Due to the incredible capabilities brought about by the computing power of today’s technologies and the convenience of being able to use biometric identification in the field via HIIDE, all these data points can be cross-referenced to identify a person in minutes, if not seconds. While the Taliban’s ability to access the HIIDE data remains in question, military experts say a potential Taliban ally — China, Pakistan, or Russia — may be able to do so.
Even worse, the MIT Technology Review reports that the US-backed Afghan government constructed two databases: its own database modeled after ABIS, and the Afghan Personnel and Pay System (APPS) — a US-funded biometric database used to pay the Afghan national army and police. In the Taliban’s hands, these two databases pose an equally grave threat to Afghans who worked for or assisted the US military. (APPS collected around 40 pieces of data per individual, from eye scans to family trees and favorite foods.)
Investigative reporter and “First Platoon: A Story of Modern War in the Age of Identity Dominance” (Dutton, 2021) author Annie Jacobsen says ABIS was designed to track terrorists and other insurgents. Col. Senodja Sundiata-Walker, manager of the DOD’s biometrics program, called ABIS a quick way to “collect, identify, and neutralize the enemy.” Using HIIDE and other devices under the ABIS umbrella, DOD’s stated goal was to identify 80 percent of the Afghan population to help weed out terrorists and criminals.
Information collected by HIIDE was considered valuable across the US government too. In 2011, the Government Accountability Office criticized the DOD for not sharing HIIDE data through the interagency process with the Department of Homeland Security and FBI — which would enable federal partners to identify potential criminals and terrorists. The Department of State also used HIIDE data in their hiring process to vet candidates for jobs at US embassies and in certain military operations.
The problem now is that the ABIS and HIIDE systems were designed for efficiency on the US government’s end, not data security. Even with recent cyber intrusions and hacks into US government databases, there was no known effort over the last few years to encrypt HIIDE data or, for that matter, any initiative to ensure the biometric data collected from Afghans was secure. “Even back in 2016, it may have been the databases, rather than the devices themselves, that posed the greatest risk,” the MIT Technology Review notes . The demand to make the system interoperable between agencies also likely created friction between the goals of easy and secure access to data.
Iris scans have been used in the commercial market for employee credentials and in transportation hubs such as airports to automate identity checks at document control points. When employees or consumers agree to use their iris as a data point, terms-of-use agreements act as an exchange for access. But unlike with commercial use of biometric data, no deletion or retention policy is in place for the HIIDE data collected and maintained on Afghan people. The same is true for the Afghan government’s ABIS-based system and the US-funded APPS program — both of which contain key data the Taliban can now mine . “I wouldn’t be surprised if they looked at the databases and started printing lists based on this . . . and now are head-hunting former military personnel,” a person familiar with the APPS database commented .
What should we learn from this potentially harmful situation? First is the importance of establishing a full-circle ecosystem for data collection and retention when creating any identity system. Data governance and privacy advocates are always at odds with government entities around how and what data should be collected, how they should be maintained and shared, and when they should be permanently deleted. Control, security, and privacy protections must be built into the original design of any data collection system. And when the use of collected data migrates to other operations, maintaining the data’s security, especially when transacting with the government, must be a top priority.
As we look at data protection regimes and privacy legislation, we need to consider how data will be used beyond their original purpose to ensure usability, security, and privacy are kept intact. One purpose does not beat out the other. Compromising security for ease of use will allow dangerous situations to happen again — such as endangering Afghans who helped our military and diplomatic corps.